Tipos de Transportes
Marine transport is the most used modal in international trade. In Brazil, it is responsible for more than 90% of the international transport. This transport makes it possible to navigate through rivers and lakes. The ports perform an important role as a connecting link between land and marine modals. It also has an additional function, which is to decrease the flow of cargos in the local highway system, through storage and distribution.
- Greater cargo capacity;
- Transports any type of cargo;
- Lowest transport cost.
- Necessity of transshipping at the ports;
- Distance from the production centers;
- Greater demand on packaging;
- Less flexibility on services due to frequent port congestions.
Types of Ships
- General Cargo Ships
These ships transport various types of cargo, generally in small lots like boxes, crated vehicles or on wheels, paper reels, barrels and others. It has rectangular openings on the main deck and cargo covers called cargo hatchways, from where the cargo is loaded to be stowed into the hatches and hulks.
- Passenger Ships
These ships only transport people and their luggage. They can be used for a normal voyage as well as a tourism cruise. The structure focuses on entertainment and leisure.
- Door Ships – Containers
These are similar to general cargo ships, but they usually have only one or two simple masts without cargo poles. The cargo hatchways practically take the entire deck area and are equipped with guides to fit the containers into the hulks. Some of these ships have special cranes.
- Tank Ships
These ships transport crude oil and refined products (alcohol, gasoline, diesel, kerosene, etc.). These are characterized for their astern superstructure and the long main deck almost always having a bridge in the middle of the ship that goes from the superstructure to the prow. This bridge is a safety precaution for the crew.
- Roll Operation Ships (Ro-Ro Ships)
On these ships the cargo goes in and out of
and hatchways, horizontally or almost horizontally, usually on wheels (automobiles, buses, trucks) or on vehicles (generally small trucks, trailers, rolling platforms, etc). There are many types of Ro-Ros, like car carriers, truck carriers, multi-purpose, etc.; all are characterized by their side height and the ramp in the stern part of the ship.
- Granary Ships
These ships are used for the transport of large quantities of bulk cargo: corn, wheat, soy, iron ore, etc. They are characterized by its long main deck where the hulks are prominent.
- Chemical Ships
These ships are similar to gas ships, transporting special chemical cargos, such as: liquid sulfur, phosphoric acid, caustic soda, etc..
- Towing Ships
These ships are used to tow, pull and maneuver all kinds of ships. Generally, they are used to maneuver large ships in the port area and access channels to the ports. These can also rescue ships in open sea, towing them to safe areas; and pulling stranded ships out of sand banks. Even though these are small, they have great motor power.
- Ore-Oil Ships
These ships are for double cargo, that is, they transport ore and oil.
- Aircraft Carrier
These ships are used by the Armed Forces (Marine) to transport planes to the main area of performance. They serve as a mobile operation base, which includes landing and taking off runways.
- Military Ships
There are many other types, besides Aircraft Ships. Here are a few more: Frigates, Submarines, Torpedo Boats, Signaling Ships, Light Ships, Hydro-Oceanographic Ship, Oceanographic Ship, Hydrographic Ships, Oceanographic Support Ships, Hospital Ships, Tank Ships, Fluvial Transport Ships, Submarine Rescue Ships, Troop Carriers, etc.